Skin diseases - a list of the most common ailments

From the outside, the human body protects its largest organ and is therefore very vulnerable. The skin consists of 3 layers, epidermis, dermis and adipose tissue, each of which is subject to many diseases. In order to start treatment in a timely manner, it is important to know the forms and symptoms of such pathologies, their external manifestations.

Types of skin diseases

There are several options for classifying the described group of ailments, depending on their localization, the nature of the course, and the clinical picture. To simplify, skin diseases are usually distinguished according to the cause of occurrence. By clarifying the factors that provoked the problem under consideration, it is easier to establish a correct diagnosis and prescribe an effective treatment regimen.

Classification of dermatological diseases

By origin, the presented group of pathologies is divided into the following types:

  1. Bacterial skin diseases. They are caused mainly by staphylococci and streptococci, often accompanied by pustular processes.
  2. Viral lesions. The most common cause of skin diseases is herpes, it tends to recur.
  3. Fungal pathologies. A distinctive feature of this group is increased resistance to treatment.
  4. Parasitic skin diseases in humans. This type of ailment is provoked by microscopic organisms.
  5. Autoimmune diseases. They develop as a result of an inadequate response of their own defense system.
  6. Oncological pathologies (skin cancer). The exact causes of their occurrence are still unknown.

Skin diseases — list

To obtain information about any problem, it is important to know its exact name. Microbial dermatological skin disease — names:

Viral skin diseases:

  • smallpox;
  • herpes;
  • molluscum contagiosum;
  • shingles;
  • warts;
  • papillomas and others.

Fungal diseases:

  • epidermophytosis;
  • candidiasis;
  • seborrhea;
  • nodular trichosporia;
  • trichophytosis;
  • multi-colored lichen;
  • scab;
  • rubrophytia;
  • microsporia and others.

Parasitic diseases of the skin:

  • scabies;
  • demodicosis;
  • leishmaniasis;
  • pediculosis and others.

skin diseases list

Autoimmune diseases:

  • hives;
  • neurodermatitis;
  • pemphigus;
  • scleroderma;
  • dermatomyositis;
  • acrosclerosis;
  • psoriasis;
  • vasculitis;
  • pemphigoid;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus with manifestations on the skin;
  • dermatitis herpetiformis Dühring;
  • chloasma and others.

Oncological diseases:

  • adenocarcinoma;
  • squamous cell skin cancer;
  • basalioma;
  • melanoma and others.

Symptoms of skin diseases

The clinical picture of dermatological pathologies corresponds to their type and severity. Skin diseases also have common symptoms, among which may be observed:

  • rashes;
  • cracks;
  • ulcers;
  • redness, bruising and other changes in skin tone;
  • itching;
  • acne;
  • abscesses;
  • growths;
  • peeling;
  • erosion;
  • dryness;
  • blisters;
  • change in skin pigmentation;
  • inflammation;
  • pustules, papules and the like.

Skin diseases on the face

The most common problem in this area is acne. Acne is provoked by propionic bacteria, but various factors can stimulate their reproduction:

  • hormonal imbalance;
  • improper care;
  • parasitic infections;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • violations of the immune system;
  • bad habits;
  • stress.

In addition to acne, there are often pathologies caused by other microbes, fungi, viruses and parasites. The visual symptoms of facial skin diseases are shown in the photo below:

Skin diseases on the face demodicosisSkin diseases on the face herpes

  • seborrheic dermatitis;

Skin diseases on the face seborrheic dermatitisSkin conditions on the face seborrheic rosaceaSkin diseases on the face seborrheic rosaceaSkin diseases on the face of chloasma

Skin diseases on the head

The epidermis of the hairy areas is also prone to dermatological ailments. Their main symptom is dandruff. Often, diseases of the scalp are accompanied by other characteristic signs:

  • itching;
  • hair loss;
  • peeling;
  • increased activity of the sebaceous glands;
  • end section;
  • fragility, fragility and dullness of hair;
  • rash on the scalp;
  • redness.

Common dermatological diseases of the hairy areas:

Skin diseases on the head seborrhea

  • ringworm;

Skin diseases on the head ringwormSkin diseases on the head pediculosisSkin diseases on the head folliculitis

Skin diseases on the body

The maximum amount of epidermis, dermis and adipose tissue protects the human body. The most pronounced and extensive lesions are provoked by the skin disease psoriasis, plaques sometimes cover up to 80% of the body. They have a specific appearance and structure, as seen in the photo, so the pathology is easily diagnosed even during the initial appointment with a dermatologist.

Other common skin ailments on the body:

  • shingles;

Skin diseases on the body shinglesSkin diseases on the body eczemaSkin diseases on the body acne

  • pink deprive Zhibera;

Skin diseases on the body pink lichen

  • allergic dermatitis;

Skin diseases on the body allergic dermatitisSkin diseases on the body urticaria

  • skin melanoma;

Skin diseases on the body melanomaSkin diseases on the body

Skin diseases on the hands

Palms and hands are constantly in contact with contaminated surfaces, chemicals and other irritants. The result of this can be a skin disease dermatitis, which has an autoimmune (allergic) nature. It manifests itself in the form of a reddish rash, prone to confluence and the formation of extensive foci of inflammation, peeling and itching.

The following diseases can also be found on the skin of the hands:

Skin diseases on the handsSkin diseases on the hands eczemaSkin diseases on the hands psoriasisSkin diseases on the hands mycosisSkin diseases on the hands of panaritiumSkin diseases on the hands neurodermatitisSkin diseases on the hands of vitiligoSkin diseases on the hands

Skin diseases on the legs

Feet most of the time are covered with shoes, subject to rubbing and minor damage, which contributes to the reproduction and spread of fungal infections. For this reason, fungal diseases of smooth skin are often diagnosed on the legs, accompanied by an unpleasant odor, exfoliation of the epidermis, and destruction of nails. Without treatment, such pathologies progress rapidly, becoming chronic.

Less often, the legs are affected by other skin diseases, the symptoms of which are shown in the photo:

Skin diseases on the legs dermatitisSkin diseases on the legs psoriasis

  • hyperkeratosis;

Skin diseases on the legs hyperkeratosisSkin diseases on the legs

  • plantar warts.

Skin diseases on the feet plantar warts

Skin diseases — diagnosis

To prescribe adequate treatment, a dermatologist needs to find out the type of pathology and the cause of its occurrence. Human skin diseases are diagnosed using the following methods:

  • clinical examination by a specialist;
  • collection of anamnesis;
  • registration of patient complaints and visual symptoms;
  • establishing the presence of an isomorphic reaction;
  • vitropressure (diascopy, pressure on damaged areas with glass);
  • layered scraping;
  • bacterioscopic or bacteriological examination;
  • cytological analysis of prints, smears;
  • determination of the cellular composition of the fluid separated from the affected surface;
  • histochemical and histological examination of the epidermis;
  • dermatography or dermatoscopy;
  • skin tests;
  • serological tests;
  • microscopic analysis of scrapings.

In addition to specific methods of examination, general methods for diagnosing diseases are used. Analysis is required:

  • blood (standard and biochemical, for sugar);
  • urine;
  • feces.

Depending on the suspected causes of the disease, the dermatologist may recommend the following tests:

  • hormonal panels;
  • allergy tests;
  • immune status;
  • ultrasound diagnostics of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • virology and others.

Treatment of skin diseases

The therapeutic approach is selected taking into account the cause of the established pathology. Diseases of the skin are treated with systemic and local drugs aimed at eliminating symptoms and combating pathogens:

  • anti-inflammatory;
  • antibiotics;
  • antiviral;
  • corticosteroid or sex hormones;
  • antihistamines;
  • antifungal;
  • antiseptics;
  • antiparasitic;
  • keratolytics and other groups of medicines.

In addition, phyto- and physiotherapy are used, general methods of treatment are suitable regardless of which skin disease has been detected:

  • rejection of harmful addictions;
  • diet correction;
  • normalization of the daily routine;
  • selection of the right skin care;
  • compliance with the drinking regime;
  • taking vitamins and minerals;
  • compliance with hygiene standards.

Skin diseases and their prevention

Some dermatological ailments cannot be prevented, especially if the cause of their occurrence is not yet known to medicine, for example, psoriasis or eczema. In other cases, the prevention of skin diseases comes down to the following recommendations:

  1. Choosing the right cosmetics
  2. Avoid visiting public places with high humidity (pools, saunas, baths and beaches), where sanitary requirements are not observed.
  3. Adhere to hygiene rules, take a shower regularly, using cosmetic soap (gel) and a washcloth.
  4. Avoid unprotected sex with unfamiliar partners.
  5. Keep nails clean.
  6. Do not use other people’s towels, washcloths, razors and other personal items.
  7. Do manicures, pedicures and hair removal only by certified masters who follow sanitary rules.
  8. Follow nutrition.
  9. Wash hands before eating, after going to the toilet and after coming from the street.
  10. Use disinfectant spray or skin wipes when traveling on public transport.
  11. Observe quarantine if a family member has contracted a dermatological disease.
  12. Do not come into contact with infected people and animals.

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