HIV is considered the most dangerous infectious disease, but there is a more contagious pathology that can cause irreversible changes in the body and death. In most countries, the population is poorly informed about hepatitis B, and therefore not everyone is vaccinated. Vaccination is the only effective method of prevention.
Do you need a hepatitis B vaccine?
Due to the lack of information about the disease in question, many people neglect vaccination. Whether an adult is vaccinated against hepatitis B is a voluntary decision. Mandatory introduction of the vaccine is carried out by medical workers when traveling to regions with a dangerous epidemiological situation, living with a sick person or a carrier of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended before pregnancy. In other cases, the vaccine remains at one’s own discretion, but in the absence of immunity to infection, it is desirable to make it.
How can you get hepatitis B?
The only way for the virus to penetrate is through a proteinaceous biological fluid, predominantly blood.
Hepatitis B infection pathway has the following:
- invasive medical manipulations (cuts, tissue removal, washing, scrapings, and others);
- manicure and pedicure;
- haircut with scissors;
- injection of drugs, drugs with a non-sterile syringe, needle;
- sexual intercourse, sometimes even protected;
- close household contacts (use of a common razor, washcloth, scissors);
- from mother to child during childbirth, breastfeeding.
Why is hepatitis B dangerous?
The main problem after infection with this virus is the risk of pathology becoming chronic. It is not yet possible to completely cure the disease, effective drugs are still under development.
Viral hepatitis B in the long term leads to cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and other serious lesions:
- liver failure;
- hepatic coma.
The danger of hepatitis B in adults is a long incubation period. From the moment of infection, it can take 2-6 months before the first symptoms of the disease appear. Sometimes the acute form never starts. Hepatitis occurs in an anicteric form, and a person becomes a carrier of the virus without even knowing it. With a decrease in immunity or severe stress, emotional or physical, the infection will make itself felt.
Can you get hepatitis B after vaccination?
The effectiveness of primary vaccination is about 85-90%, regardless of age. In order for the prevention of hepatitis B to be considered successful, it is necessary to check the presence of antibodies to the virus in the blood 1-4 months after vaccination. If they are not enough (less than 100 mIU / ml), a repeated dose of the drug is administered once. Properly performed vaccination against hepatitis B in adults guarantees stable immunity to infection. Previously, it was believed that he works 5-7 years. Modern studies have shown that protection lasts for at least 25 years, and in some people for life.
Hepatitis B vaccination for adults — contraindications
The described medication is positioned as the safest way to prevent pathology. The main contraindication is a severe hypersensitivity reaction to the first dose of a hepatitis B preventive drug, in which case vaccination is stopped. In such a situation, the patient is sent for examination and a virological blood test.
Hepatitis B vaccination is contraindicated in adults under the following conditions:
- allergy to thiomersal or yeast;
- acute diseases or relapses of chronic pathologies (the procedure is postponed until the temperature normalizes, remission, recovery).
Hepatitis B vaccination schedule for adults
For preventive manipulation, you can contact the state district clinic. This facility provides domestically produced recombinant hepatitis B vaccine free of charge. If desired, it is easy to purchase an imported drug or visit a private medical center. The standard 0-1-6 schedule for hepatitis B vaccination for adults is used, the frequency is 1 month after the first injection, and another six months later. If after 2-4 months the antibody titer is low, the basic portion of the vaccine is administered once.
How is the hepatitis B vaccine administered to adults?
Before using the medication, it is important to make sure that there are no acute inflammatory processes in the body. The hepatitis B vaccine can make the condition worse. With a weakened immune system, the virus is able to survive, and infection will occur with the risk of the infection becoming chronic. It is advisable to pre-test for the presence of allergic reactions.
Where are adults vaccinated against hepatitis B?
The vaccine is intended for intramuscular injection. The best place is the shoulder. In rare cases, the place where the hepatitis B vaccine is given to adults is changed to subcutaneous tissue. Such a vaccine is required if a person has diseases that disrupt blood clotting. During the procedure, the medical worker must make sure that the needle does not enter the vascular bed.
Hepatitis B vaccine — tolerability
Most people who receive a portion of the vaccine feel good, their performance does not change. The hepatitis B vaccine is a safe medication and rarely causes side effects. Even if they occur, no special treatment is required. Hepatitis B vaccination for adults does not cause serious complications. All negative symptoms will disappear on their own within a few days.
There is an opinion that domestic solutions for vaccination are worse than imported medicines. In the course of experimental comparative analyzes, this statement was refuted. The quality of drugs is high, both from domestic manufacturers and from foreign companies.
Hepatitis B vaccine for adults — side effects
There is a standard classification of adverse events after vaccination, based on the frequency of their observation.
Vaccination against hepatitis B for adults provokes side effects mainly such:
- local swelling and induration at the injection site;
- skin redness;
- local rise in temperature.
- nodular compaction in the injection zone;
- local pain;
- skin rash;
- aches, pain in the body;
Hepatitis B emergency vaccination
The main reason for urgent vaccination is the lack of prophylaxis and recent contact with the infection. In emergency cases, a special recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is used, for example, Combiotech. The effectiveness of such a preventive measure depends on the timing of the vaccination. The earlier vaccination is given after contact with the virus, the less chance the infection has to spread throughout the body.
Emergency vaccination for adults is administered more than once. The scheme involves 4 manipulations:
- the second injection — a week later;
- the third injection — after 21 days;
- the last procedure — in a year.
Hepatitis B vaccination — consequences
If vaccination is carried out correctly and according to plan, no dangerous complications arise. Vaccination against hepatitis B for children and adults protects the body from infection with the virus, forming a stable, and sometimes lifelong, immunity. Cases of the appearance of threatening consequences and serious diseases provoked by the vaccine are extremely rare, subject to a gross violation of the recommendations for the introduction of the solution. When the drug is injected during a relapse of a chronic disease, or an acute phase of an infectious pathology, complications may occur.
Vaccination against hepatitis B in adults in extremely rare situations causes:
- erythema multiforme;
- Guillain-Barré syndrome;
- convulsions resembling an epileptic seizure;
- multiple sclerosis;
- acute hypotension with a drop in blood pressure to values of 70 to 30 mm Hg;
- neuritis, including damage to the optic nerve;
- serum sickness;
- syncopal states.